Means to prevent and stop the primary radiation reaction.

Means to prevent and stop the primary radiation reaction.

The plan defines the procedure and responsibilities of the relevant management bodies of enterprises, institutions and organizations, as well as the main measures for the organization and conduct of work to prevent and eliminate emergencies of man-made and natural nature, coordination of deadlines, financial , material and other resources necessary for these activities and works. The action plan includes measures to protect workers and employees, support production activities and others, taking into account the situation after the emergency, provides the necessary number of forces and means to eliminate the consequences of emergencies.

The necessary initial data and reference materials are used in planning, taking into account the specifics of work and features of departmental and regional activities of the enterprise, organization or institution.

The main initial data in the development of the action plan at the facility are the decisions and instructions of the senior headquarters of the CA (management, emergency department), orders of the chief of the CA facility, documents characterizing the facility (utilities, condition of buildings and structures, water sources, forecasting data for possible emergencies, etc.).

The action plan is developed on the basis of the order of the chief of the central office of the object. The management and specialists of the facility are involved in the development of the plan documents. The Chief of Staff of the Central Committee draws up a schedule for the development of individual documents (sections) and monitors its implementation.

The action plan is developed in two (if necessary and more) copies. The action plan is signed by the chief of staff of the facility, agreed with the territorial departments (departments) for emergencies and protection of the population from the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster and approved by the chief of the facility (enterprises, organizations, institutions , regardless of ownership and subordination). After approval, the content of the action plan is communicated to the executors.

Every year, as of January 1, the plan is adjusted and appropriate changes are made. The reality of the plan is checked during the command and staff, complex object exercises and object trainings of the Civil Defense.

The action plan of the governing bodies and forces of the Central Committee for the Prevention and Elimination of Emergencies is a program of preventive and protective measures. It allows you to purposefully and organizedly solve the problems of the Central Committee in the conditions of emergency in peacetime and wartime.

The plan is based on measures to protect workers, employees and their families. In determining these measures, the importance and peculiarities of the production activity of the facility, the main tasks of the management bodies and forces of the Central Command to prevent and eliminate emergencies are taken into account,

The peacetime action plan of the governing bodies and the Central Command forces consists of five sections of the text and annexes to them. The text part of the plan includes 5 sections:

Section 1. Conclusions from the assessment of the situation on the site

This section outlines the general characteristics of the territory, energy and industrial complex, utilities, access roads and roads, probable emergencies of man-made and natural nature, their scale and consequences, which are determined on the basis of expert assessment, forecast or result of model experiments, conducted by qualified experts.

Section 2. Preparation and organization of work of governing bodies in the emergency

The section sets out the procedure for receiving information on the threat and occurrence of emergencies, the timing of notification and collection of management staff during working and non-working hours.

Actions of a person who received information about the threat and occurrence of an emergency:

informing the management of the object; notification of the management staff and staff of the facility; the procedure and form of the report of the highest instance.

Actions of the head of the Central Office with receiving information about the threat and occurrence of an emergency:

issuance of an order to collect the management of the central office of the object; report of the head of the district (city) central office on the current situation, decisions taken and measures taken; making and bringing the decision to subordinates to prevent (eliminate) emergencies; practical guidance of work on prevention (elimination) of the consequences of emergencies and the course of evacuation of personnel (if necessary); daily summarizing of the results of the liquidation of the consequences of the emergency and information of the higher instance.

Actions of the emergency center of the facility with obtaining information about the threat and occurrence of emergencies:

setting a task for the senior task force, which goes to the emergency area, the order of communication, mutual information; informing the head of the Central Committee about the emergency, organizing the work of the emergency commission; clarification of the situation in the emergency area, determining the need for forces and means; analysis and assessment of the situation, clarification of the tasks of the opera group; preparation of proposals for priority works; clarification of interaction issues; if necessary, departure to the emergency area to organize leadership.

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Section 3. Forces of the Central Command of the object involved in the implementation of rescue, search and recovery works.

The presence of forces and means of the CO of the object, which are involved in the elimination of the consequences of the emergency (Table 1), is revealed.

Table 1.

The CO forces of the facility, which are involved in the elimination of the consequences of the emergency.

Section 4. Organization of ensuring the activities and actions of the CA.

The section defines the procedure for organizing the provision of measures and actions of the Central Committee during the RNR: the tasks of intelligence, transport, logistics, chemical, medical, fire and public order.

Section 5. Organization of management, notification and communication

The section determines the location of the main and reserve control point of the facility, the procedure for the operation of means of communication, management, communication and notification in case of threat and during the liquidation of emergencies at all stages.

Appendices to the action plan of management bodies and forces of the Central Administration of the object on prevention and liquidation of an emergency situation:

calendar plan of the main measures of the Central Committee in case of threat and occurrence of emergencies; map (scheme) with the possible situation in the event of an emergency; scheme of organization of management, communication and notification; plan to ensure the protection of personnel (population) in the event of an accident at HNO; calculations for emergency evacuation, shelter in protective structures; options for decisions of the head of the Central Committee to eliminate the consequences of the emergency; task force tasks and other applications.

Separately developed "The action plan of the management bodies and forces of the Central Command of the facility during the transition from peacetime to martial law" according to the degree of readiness of wartime and in the event of a sudden attack by the enemy.

The structure and content of this plan have hardly changed. In addition, plans for the services of the Central Command are developed at the facility to ensure the measures and actions of the governing bodies and forces of the Central Command in the event of a threat and emergency and the transfer of governing bodies and forces from peacetime to martial law.

September 25, 2011

Medical means of protection against chemical and radiation injuries. Abstract

Means of prevention and cessation of the primary radiation reaction. Medical means of chemical protection

Means of prevention and cessation of the primary radiation reaction

The primary radiation response is detected in the first minutes after irradiation due to the formation of toxic products that cause irritation of interreceptors and direct damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the structural elements of nerve cells, causing neuroendocrine damage. Clinical manifestations of the primary reaction to radiation are vomiting, headache, weakness, muscle tremor, incoordination, hypertension and others.

After irradiation at a dose of 50 Gy or more after 2-5 minutes develops for a period of 20-30 minutes a condition of early transient incapacity (ARF), which is characterized by loss of consciousness, lethargy, possibly a symptom of diarrhea. Means to prevent and stop the primary radiation reaction are designed to maintain the combat capability of personnel and facilitate the organization and conduct of medical and evacuation measures. Tablets are dimetcarb, dimetpramide, sidnocarb, dixafen.

A complex multifunctional scheme has been adopted for the prevention and treatment of radiation injuries. In terms of their effectiveness and targeting, the drugs included in this scheme have no analogs in foreign armies. Against the background of the use of RPD-77 use B-190 and cystamine according to the scheme: in nuclear explosions or for 10 minutes. before entering the area of ​​radioactive damage orally take 3 tables. B-190 and 6 table. PC-1; – in 5 years. after the first reception – 3 tables. B-190; – in 6 years. again 3 tables. B-190 and 6 table. RS-1, etc. before leaving the affected area (up to 2 days). This comprehensive use of drugs reduces the number of victims of irradiation in the minimum lethal dose to 90%. Dimetcarb and dixafen are also used in the scheme.

Medical means of chemical protection

Antidotes (antidotes) have a special place among medical means of chemical protection.

Antidotes are drugs or special formulations that prevent or eliminate the main signs of intoxication due to physical or chemical transformations in direct interaction with the poison or due to antagonism with the poison in action on biotargets (receptors, enzymes) and physiological systems.

Depending on the application of antidotes are divided into preventive and curative.

According to the mechanism of protective action and toxicokinetic features of the action of PR and poisons, antidote substances can be divided into the following groups:

I. Means to prevent access of the poison into the body (local antidotes). These antidotes are used primarily. Among them there are two subgroups.

1. Non-specific means of physicochemical action – solvents and sorbents, the use of this group of funds is based on physical principles: solubility, sorption and subsequent removal.

2. Specific means of chemical action that enter into a chemical reaction with the poison with the formation of non-toxic products. The mechanism of interaction – neutralization, oxidation, reduction, binding. These are components of the formulation of PPI solution, complexing substances: unithiol, dicaptol, Na hyposulfite, aminopolycarboxylic, aminopolyphosphoric acids (EDTA, DTPA, etc.).